The development of agriculture and agricultural societies

Around 11,000 BC was the area that extends from the Nile Valley to Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Iraq the most fertile area. For this reason this area is called the fertile Crescent. It is therefore not surprising that the first farmers lived here.

The first people were always been hunters and gatherers and traveled their food. This changed, however, during the agricultural revolution. This revolution is called also called the Neolithic revolution. It was the beginning of a new epoch in history. The time for this revolution is called the Middle Stone age. The time after the revolution is the name of the new stone age, also called Neolithic. This epoch has its name from the fact that the people first utensils made of pottery.

But during the agricultural revolution, they did an even much greater discovery than making utensils of pottery. For the first time in history they were grains and other edible plants. We don't know exactly how humans invented agriculture, but there are different theories about it.

According to the OASIS theory was the ground in the Middle East thanks to the end of the last ice age very dry and become infertile. As a result, people were drawn to the only places where still animals and fertile soil was. This was in the oases and along the rivers. But this theory is not true because the remains of the first agricultural settlements mainly on mountain slopes have been found.

Another theory comes from Professor Hillman. He discovered during excavations that the hunter-gatherers in Syria domestic cereals with them. He came to the conclusion that they are the cereals, which first grew in the wild, had gathered and began remodeling. They were forced to do so because many wild grains around 13,000 BC became extinct thanks to a cold, dry period.

The agricultural revolution caused the sedentary revolution. Sedentary means permanent residence. In the sedentary revolution got the first man for the first time a permanent residence. They remained close to their fields now live and keep cattle went for meat, wool and milk. They learned ever better build houses and made tools to work the land. The invention of the sickle and the team made sure that more and more food could be grown. The villages were larger because there are now more children were born. They also act in the food that was about. They exchanged it for example for Obsidian. This is a very strong, black volcanic grass where they could make tools.

Around 7500 BC lived almost all cultures in the fertile Crescent of agriculture. It took another 2200 years before the agricultural revolution reached the Netherlands. About 5300 years BC, the first fields of Limburg. Around 4000 BC, this happened also in Drenthe.

In Drenthe were many huge boulders. These boulders were during the ice age from Scandinavia on the Drenthe country. The farmers could not use these boulders on their fields. Therefore, they decided to use the boulders as grave. How they have been able to move the heavy boulders and stacking is still a mystery. Some stones weigh more than 25,000 km. You can still admire these graves of stone. We call the dolmens. These dolmens


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