The life of hunters and gatherers

At the end of the nineteenth century one did in Germany an important discovery. In the town of Neandertal (about 80 kilometers from the Dutch border) became a fossil of an extinct human species found. This species was called a Neanderthal. Thanks to this discovery one had evidence for the theory of evolution. The evolution theory is an important theory for man's history. According to this theory the first human species lived six million years ago in Africa. Has the man from Africa to Europe and the East. This theory also says that the first people sort descended from the ape. Before the theory of evolution existed it was believed that the Earth was created by one or more gods. There are still people who find this explanation better than the theory of evolution. These people called creationists.

Of course there are many more fossils and other remains from the first epoch of the existence of the Earth found. On the basis of these discoveries, scientists can tell how and when the first human species lived.

When in 1989 in Israel a more droogviel, it was found a camp that 20,000 years old turned out to be. The remains of this camp were so well preserved that they look quite a lot of information. The camp consisted of round huts and there they found flint tools. This Flint tools did people 20,000 years ago homemade and they used when hunting or to the food. Their life was mainly focused on survival. To do this they had to get sufficient food from nature every day. They did this through hunting, collecting fruits and nuts or by fishing. The culture that they had found here at the bottom of the Lake, they called the Ohalo-culture. The epoch in which they lived is called the prehistory.

The hunters and gatherers of the Ohalo-culture lived and hunted in small groups. Per person they could get food from an area of ten square kilometers. This means that if their area 50 square kilometres was, they hunted with a group of 5 people. If there is no more food in this area was to be found, they went to another area.

The people in the Ohalo-culture, however, remained all year in their camp. On the place where they lived was the soil very fertile and grew many cereals and other edible plants. Most other cultures at this time were nomads. They led a nomadic existence. This meant that they roamed. They often had a fixed camp, which is called the base camp. In addition, they had several smaller camps far from the base camp. So they had to travel a lot and lived in one year at different places. Until much later in history the hunters were slowly becoming farmers and they could remain in a fixed place.

There are also graves found that the first people have made for their deceased family. In these graves have gifts for the dead found. Archaeologists think that the family has given this to the dead because they believed in life after death. Also do they think that the people in the first cultures all had the same status. This means that there is no leader or were servants. There were no social differences.


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