Rise of the urban bourgeoisie and increasing independence of cities

In the late Middle Ages worked the rural farmers in the service of their Lords. They were tied to their country and were mostly serfs or serfs. Both serfs as serfs had to provide services for their landlords and cede part of their harvest. But in this day and age of the history you could also Serf. A SERF was not allowed. They were actually a kind of slave to the landlord. But slaves were not allowed to have family. Serfs were allowed to though.

Serfs did have rights. It there were not many, but they were allowed to, for example, decide which products they grew. In the course of time, they got more and more rights. There came a time when they were allowed to earn money. By this money to spare could buy his freedom the Serf.

If he was a free man, he could choose to the city. In the cities, it was really pretty. The countryside was still ruled by a count or a Duke. The cities often had its own Board. This medieval city Council called the magistrate. Also they had and own tax system. The City Council built of squares and bridges built. They also built a city wall to often hostile peoples. But for this freedom the city had to pay taxes to the count or Duke. Also had the Lord often anyone in the city who oversaw the townspeople. This was often a schout or bailiff. As the cities grew, Mr got other income not only serves its income from serfdom. This ensured that he was less and less dependent on the services of the serfs. He could be the serfs so more and more privileges. There were in this epoch so more and more farmers who bought themselves free.

If a SERF went to live in the city they had to learn a new craft often. This could only if he joined a Guild. This was a kind of Association. The history knows for example a Potter's Guild, a Guild of Weavers Guild, a carpenter or a butcher's Guild. Each craft had its own Guild. Within this Guild was trained and cared for you for example, if you became incapacitated. Also often settled the funeral of Guild members and their family. Within the guilds golden strict requirements. Only boys and men could become a member. They had to pay a membership fee. The young boys were apprenticed to a master of the Guild. Only when these good enough was the boy stood was a fellow. From the moment he got the boy journeyman was paid for his work. At the end of his learning period did the fellow a master trial. Only when he was successful he was allowed to start his own company. Also in his company, he had to abide by the rules of the Guild. For instance, there were price agreements made and the company was regularly checked to see if these were in order.

Only Christians were allowed to join a Guild. But there lived in the epoch of the cities and States also Jews in the city. Because they were excluded from participation by a Guild, they often act in money.

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