Starting from the year 1000 we speak of the epoch of the cities and States. Netherlands fell in this second part of the middle ages under the Dominion of the Holy Roman Empire. This realm was founded in 962 from the eastern part of the Frankish Empire and had first to King Otto I. In this epoch in which ruled the Holy Roman Empire gave rise to many cities and the existing cities grew.
The cities could grow because the low countries around the year 1000 no longer was attacked by aggressive peoples like Huns and Vikings. Also increased food production. For example, farmers used now other draught animals to the team. Formerly they used usually oxen. Now they used horses. So it went work on the country faster. They also found an improved version of the team from. Another reason causing the harvest became larger came through the introduction of the drieslag system. This meant that they break the ground once every three years. It was an important invention in history. The ground was thus the most fertile and delivered so most on. They shared their land in threes, and two thirds in their path. The year after was the undeveloped land sown and was another part break-through. This was the most beneficial and productive way of rotation with fallow. Before they left the half of their land. Also came in the eleventh and twelfth century new agricultural land by draining swamps and damming of tracts of land by the sea. Also to cultivate forests were cut down to.
The farmers could sell their goods go. They sold vegetables, grain, meat, wine or wool on the market. This was usually held at places where different roads crossed each other. A city could arise in such a place. Because also here were people who could handle the products of the farmers. These people were craftsmen. They were for example b, Weaver, Carpenter or blacksmith. The artisans were members of their own association. These associations called guilds. In the guilds were young boys trained as a craftsman.
We call this time the main trading cities in Hanseatic cities. A Hanseatic is a medieval grouping of traders and cities. In these cities was not only the local harvest sold. There were also products imported from abroad and sold. Bruges is an example of a Hanseatic City. In Bruges were wool sheets made and traded. To do this, they had wool. But there was at one point not enough wool in Flanders. Therefore they imported wool from London. London was also an important Hanseatic City. Also Hanseatic towns in Netherlands we had. A few of these are: Zutphen, Arnhem, Nijmegen, Deventer, Groningen, Hindeloopen and Stavoren. All these cities were easily accessible over the water. These cities all have so a rich history dating back to the middle ages.