Before the first world war began the European population was positive. They thought everything could only get better and believed that they could all the problems. That turned out to be not the case. The war was the largest humanitarian disaster in history. It has many people affected. Several States went into hiding deep in debt and families had to go on living without a father.
In this epoch, the people doubt the democracy. Maybe it was not such a good idea when they first thought. So arose in this epoch three different alternatives to democracy. These alternatives were all totalitarian. That means that the political system in all layers of the society by calls. It controls the daily lives of the people in the living room. Often a totalitarian regime ruled by a dictator. A dictator has the total power of a country in his hands.
Germany had really suffered from the fines which they had to pay after the first world war. The country was in crisis. The world found that they were the culprit of the war and so they were looking for something to be proud of. This was the German nation. In Germany grew the national socialism. This was a totalitarian ideology. This ideology was represented by the NSDAP. This was a German political party which quickly became the only party in Germany. Their leader was Adolf Hitler.
Another totalitarian ideology was fascism. This seemed much on national socialism because it also gave attention to the nation. Also it was anti-democratic. Fascism was very popular in Italy but also Germany was becoming more fascist. In fascism is believed that a country needs to be led by one strong leader. In Italy this was Mussolini.
The third totalitarian ideology was communism. Communism arose from the philosophy of Karl Marx. Karl Marx had written about the unfair distribution of money. He saw that the workers were exploited and the factory owners were becoming richer. He also had a solution for this. Everyone had to get as much. The factories were no longer in the hands of one person. If the factories around the country, the money and the products can be divided much fairer. Then everyone can benefit from the proceeds.
After the first world war Russia was completely bankrupt. There was a group of Russians on who thought the solution was the best idea in the history of Marx. They called themselves the Bolsheviks. Their leader was called Vladimir Lenin. Not everyone agreed with the ideas of Lenin. So there was a civil war in Russia. The Bolsheviks won this and argued the Communist system. The name refers to the word communism commune. This is a society in which everyone shares everything with each other.
All private companies in Russia were nationalized. This means that the property was of the Russian State. No one had still a private company. The State was the only one who was allowed to trade. It was also nationalized all agricultural land. Food and other basic necessities were rationed. This meant that the State Fair under this aggregated and tried all the inhabitants of the country. It was intended that all people the same amount of food stamps. With such a food coupons you could get nothing else than food.
But unfortunately not the idea worked so very well. Because there were people in Russia and dictatorship, is to be preferred. The family, friends and the successors of Lenin had free access to all resources where the ordinary person could not come.