Citizenship and scientific thought in the Greek city State

The Dutch word democracy comes from the Greek words dèmos and krateo. Dèmos means ' the people ' and krateo means ' reign ' or ' rule '. Literally means democracy: the people governs. That the word democracy descended from Greek is not accidental. The ancient Greeks were the first people in Western history with a democracy. The democracy was imported here in 507 BC. This is about 300 years before the Greek Empire was taken over by the Romans.

Yet it was democracy in ancient Greece arranged quite different than now. Only citizens were allowed to vote in the old Greece. But not every city dweller was also citizen. Indeed, a citizen had to have enough money to be able to buy a weapon equipment. Only if he could fight to the City State could call himself a citizen to protect. In this epoch could actually be citizen only men. If there are important political decisions had to be taken, a public meeting was held. Such a people's Assembly called an ekklesia. This 6000 citizens were present.

If there is a decision in the ekklesia was taken not for the whole of Greece, this is different. He gold only for the City-State. A city is called a polis. The word politics is derived from the word polis. It refers to the role of the citizens in driving the polis had. Not all poleis (plural of polis) were democratic.

We have not only democracy copied one of the Greeks. The Greeks have also laid the Foundation for our science. All science began through philosophy. Philosophy means the love of wisdom '. Philosophers thought critically about different things and wanted to this pointer. The first philosophers called sophists.

The first important Greek philosopher comes from the epoch of the Greek empire. This was Socrates. Socrates had a critical attitude towards the Athenian democracy and its rulers. The rulers found that he too many questions about things that they are quite normal. They were afraid that Socrates is a bad influence on youth and therefore he was sentenced to death. The most important student of Socrates was Plato. He accepted democracy. Plato wanted to prefer that the City States were ruled by philosophers.

The ancient Greek philosophers wrote about everything. Both about religion as about economics, politics, nature or medicine. But around 600 BC began natural philosophy to be a separate category. In natural philosophy had the philosophers especially attention to the Earth and the universe. They also examined the human body and came to know much about different diseases. Before they did this research many people thought that an illness was caused by the gods.

The main doctor of history was Hippocrates. He lived from 460 – 380 BC on the island of Kos. He thought the human body consisted of a balance of four different juices: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.


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