Time of cities and States

The period during which we discuss here is the second half of the middle ages. The middle ages lasted from the year 500 up to the year 1500. On this site we will discuss the period of the year 1000 up to the year 1500. This portion of the middle ages we divide also called under in the high middle ages and the Late Middle Ages. The high middle ages lasted from the year 1000 up to the year 1300 and the Late Middle Ages by the year 1300 to the year 1500.

In the high middle ages was the population of Western Europe very grown up. This was because the farmers better techniques had invented to country to mine. They also knew the land more fertile that could allow the harvest became larger. The cities grew. But the plague was a major disaster in history. In the year 1347 there are very many people in Europe died from the plague. The population was very thinned out.

Around the year 1000 the Catholic Church still had a big urge to expand its territory. They did this by, among other things, to go to war with the Muslims. These wars called Crusades. But also the Kings wanted their area like to expand. This resulted in the hundred years ' war between England and France. This war lasted from 1337 to 1453 the year. Actually the war lasted 116 years so. But in the interim there was often peace. The hundred years ' war were actually so multiple wars that together lasted about 100 years. At the height of the war had conquered England much area on the Mainland. But at the end of the war they lost almost everything. In the end it was Calais the only area that they are still on the Mainland.

In this epoch, many cities and States formed. But this also had to be controlled. In the early Middle Ages the King had many lands on loan. This was feudalism developed. But history also had learned that this system didn't work well. It meant that the country was fragmented and was governed by Lords and vassals. The King had little more to say. The Kings wanted to govern their territory from a capital. They wanted the site he had ever loaned back. When the King of France after the hundred years ' war had a very large, continuous, he wanted to govern by means of these officials.

There was a society. In this society, the King at the top. Below was the clergy. These were the people of the Church. Below, the nobility and at the very bottom, the citizens. The Church had so much power. The Pope should appoint the bishops ruled over parts of the Kingdom. But the emperor also appointed some bishops.  At this time was not yet separated Church and State. If you ecclesiastical power had, then you were often also worldly power. Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII finally got row over naming the bishops. After many years, it was decided that the emperor has no bishops should appoint more. This was a task that only the Pope should fulfill.

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